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A statistical study of the construction performance records of Foster Wheeler Energy UK Ltd, shows a strong association between improving safety and improving productivity.

Is the Time Right for Impairment Testing? by Evelyn Beck

Evelyn Beck’s 2001 article from Workforce weighs some pros and cons of impairment testing and concludes that the scale tips in favor of the pros.

Evaluating Fitness-for-Duty by William M. Cody, Battalion Chief

Los Angeles Fire Department Battalion Chief William M. Cody investigates existing solutions in evaluating fitness-for-duty and determines that the technological tools available (in 2001) were impractical for daily use or inaccurate, thus preventing their widespread adoption. Current advances in mobile technology have begun to solve this problem, and Predictive Safety is at the fore.

Effects of Acute Smoked Marijuana on Complex Cognitive Performance 
by Carl L. Hart, Wilfred van Gorp, Margaret Haney, Richard W. Foltin, & Marian W. Fischman

Researchers Hart, van Gorp, Haney, Foltin, and Fischman’s double-blind study concludes that an experienced marijuana user’s ability to perform complex cognitive tasks is minimally affected, if at all. This provides further evidence that reliance on urine testing alone as a fit-for-duty screen may unfairly penalize employees who may not be impaired despite a positive test.

Performance Testing as a Determinant of Fitness-for-Duty 
by R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein, and James C. Miller

This early paper on fitness-for-duty testing by Allen, Stein, and Miller explored two such screening processes called Critical Thinking Tasks (CTT) and Divided Attention Tasks (DTT). They conclude that “in general, [these] fitness for duty performance screening tasks…illustrate the feasibility of this approach for real world applications in the work place. With further research and real world experience, task impairment discriminability and testing convenience should improve significantly over current levels.

Research Report: Measuring Human Fatigue with
the BLT Testing System

by Bowles-Langley Technology

This NIOSH-funded research project of Bowles-Langley alertness testing innovations concluded that “testing for fatigue and impairment in the workplace is both feasible and practical.”

Leading Measures for Improving Safety Performance
By Earl H. Blair and Barry S. Spurlock

Earl Blair of Indiana University and Barry Spurlock of the Midwestern Insurance Alliance presented this conference paper for the 2007 ASSE Professional Development Conference. It demonstrates the need for safety systems to rely less on trailing measures and incorporate leading measures to improve safety performance.

Leading Measures of Safety Performance
By Earl H. Blair and Barry S. Spurlock

Blair and Spurlock’s 2008 follow-up seeks to help its audience understand and gain the most value from leading measures.

Looking Ahead to Significant Improvements in Mining Safety and Health through Innovative Research and Effective Diffusion into the Industry
By Jeffery L. Kohler

Description:  Jeffery L. Kohler of the Pennsylvania State University examines how future innovation among experts and researchers within mine safety will make progress toward reducing health and safety risks and incidents, especially since regulatory enforcement’s role in incident reduction has reached its maximum value. 

Improving Safety & Health Performance: Identifying & Measuring Leading Indicators
By Jack Toellner

Jack Tollner’s 2001 article for Professional Safety sheds light on how safety professionals can gain more value from their measurements of safety performance by identifying and acting upon leading indicators to prevent injuries and illnesses.

Safety Performance Measurement: Identifying Prospective Indicators with High Validity
by R. Scott Stricoff

R. Scott Stricoff examines the viability and validity of “upstream” and “downstream” measures available to safety professionals.

Measuring Safety Performance to Achieve Long Term Improvement
by James C. Manzella

James C. Manzella presents six steps to implementing a shift toward a safety system that emphasizes “conformance to established methods and correction of system deficiencies,” and thus a cultural change that seeks to bring risks to their lowest levels.

Tracking the Market Performance of Companies That Integrate a Culture of Health and Safety
By Raymond Fabius, Ronald R. Loeppke, Todd Hohn, Dan Fabius, Barry Eisenberg, Doris L. Konicki, & Paul Larson

Description: This 2016 article from The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine provides solid research showing a correlation between strong health and safety systems and superior performance in the market.

Overview of Leading Indicators for Occupational Health and Safety in Mining
By International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM)

Description: This 2012 report by the ICMM details the benefits, development, and application of leading indicators for safety & health in mining.