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There Is More to "Health and Safety Is Good Business" than Avoiding Unplanned Costs
by D.A. Stewart, Dip SM MIIRSM  and A.S. Townsend, BSc Tech MIOSH

A statistical study of the construction performance records of Foster Wheeler Energy UK Ltd shows a strong association between improving safety and improving productivity.

Is the Time Right for Impairment Testing?
by Evelyn Beck

Evelyn Beck’s 2001 article from Workforce weighs some pros and cons of impairment testing and concludes that the scale tips in favor of the pros.

Fatigue, Alcohol and Performance Impairment
by Drew Dawson & Kathryn Reid

This work is foundational in workplace fatigue research, demonstrating the severity of fatigue-related impairment as comparable to impairment from alcohol intoxication.

Fatigue Risk Management: Organizational Factors at the Regulatory and Industry/Company Level
by Philippa Gander, Laurence Hartley, David Powell, Philippe Cabon, Edward Hitchcock, Ann Mills, & Stephen Popkin

"This paper focuses on the development of fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) in the transport sector. The evolution of regulatory frameworks is traced, from uni-dimensional hours of service regulations through to frameworks that enable multi-dimensional FRMS . . . It is vital that regulators, employer, and employees have an understanding of the causes and consequences of fatigue that is sufficient for them to meet their responsibilities in relation to FRMS" (Abstract).

Performance Testing as a Determinant of Fitness-for-Duty 
by R. Wade Allen, Anthony C. Stein, and James C. Miller

This early paper on fitness-for-duty testing by Allen, Stein, and Miller explored two such screening processes called Critical Thinking Tasks (CTT) and Divided Attention Tasks (DTT). They conclude that “in general, [these] fitness for duty performance screening tasks…illustrate the feasibility of this approach for real world applications in the work place. With further research and real world experience, task impairment discriminability and testing convenience should improve significantly over current levels.

Research Report: Measuring Human Fatigue with
the BLT Testing System

by Bowles-Langley Technology

This NIOSH-funded research project of Bowles-Langley alertness testing innovations concluded that “testing for fatigue and impairment in the workplace is both feasible and practical.”

Leading Measures for Improving Safety Performance
by Earl H. Blair and Barry S. Spurlock

Earl Blair of Indiana University and Barry Spurlock of the Midwestern Insurance Alliance presented this conference paper for the 2007 ASSE Professional Development Conference. It demonstrates the need for safety systems to rely less on trailing measures and incorporate leading measures to improve safety performance.

Leading Measures of Safety Performance
by Earl H. Blair and Barry S. Spurlock

Blair and Spurlock’s 2008 follow-up seeks to help its audience understand and gain the most value from leading measures.

Looking Ahead to Significant Improvements in Mining Safety and Health through Innovative Research and Effective Diffusion into the Industry
by Jeffery L. Kohler

Jeffery L. Kohler of the Pennsylvania State University examines how future innovation among experts and researchers within mine safety will make progress toward reducing health and safety risks and incidents, especially since regulatory enforcement’s role in incident reduction has reached its maximum value. 

Improving Safety & Health Performance: Identifying & Measuring Leading Indicators
by Jack Toellner

Jack Tollner’s 2001 article for Professional Safety sheds light on how safety professionals can gain more value from their measurements of safety performance by identifying and acting upon leading indicators to prevent injuries and illnesses.

Safety Performance Measurement: Identifying Prospective Indicators with High Validity
by R. Scott Stricoff

R. Scott Stricoff examines the viability and validity of “upstream” and “downstream” measures available to safety professionals.

Measuring Safety Performance to Achieve Long Term Improvement
by James C. Manzella

James C. Manzella presents six steps to implementing a shift toward a safety system that emphasizes “conformance to established methods and correction of system deficiencies,” and thus a cultural change that seeks to bring risks to their lowest levels.

Tracking the Market Performance of Companies That Integrate a Culture of Health and Safety
by Raymond Fabius, Ronald R. Loeppke, Todd Hohn, Dan Fabius, Barry Eisenberg, Doris L. Konicki, & Paul Larson

This 2016 article from The Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine provides solid research showing a correlation between strong health and safety systems and superior performance in the market.

Overview of Leading Indicators for Occupational Health and Safety in Mining
by International Council on Mining & Metals (ICMM)

This 2012 report by the ICMM details the benefits, development, and application of leading indicators for safety & health in mining.

Fatigue--You're More Than Just Tired
by the National Safety Council

Americans often don't recognize the importance of sleep. NSC is a leader in working to change the culture with research, education and outreach programs related to sleep health in the workplace.

Long Work Hours, Extended or Irregular Shifts, and Worker Fatigue

Long work hours and extended and irregular shifts may lead to fatigue and to physical and mental stress. Working extended shifts may also involve prolonged exposure to potential health hazards such as noise, chemicals, and others.

Underestimating the Societal Costs of Impaired Alertness: Safety, Health and Productivity Risks
by Mark R. Rosekind

"Modern society now operates on a 24/7 global basis, with around-the-clock requirements that often ignore sleep, circadian rhythms, irregular work schedules and geographical time zones. Despite overwhelming evidence, there is gross underestimation and very little acknowledgement of the risks and costs related to sleep loss, circadian disruption, sleep disorders, reduced alertness and performance . . . A comprehensive approach using scientifically based alertness management principles and practices offers society an opportunity to operate 24/7 while reducing the risks and costs associated with impaired alertness" (Abstract).

Impairment Testing- Does It Work?
by Lewis Maltby

An early exploration of the viability of impairment testing systems. The study included Bowles Langley Technology's "BLT Tester," the prototype for AlertMeter®.

Psychological and Psychophysiological Effects of Shift Work
by Torbjörn Åkerstedt

"The psychophysiology of shift work is mainly related to circadian rhythmicity and sleep-wake phenomena. Individuals on a rotating three-shift or similar system work the night shift at the low phase of circadian rhythm. On retiring to bed in the morning they fall asleep rapidly but are prematurely awakened by their circadian rhythm and exhibit severe sleepiness and reduced performance capacity" (Abstract).